Discusses the need to use disaggregated data in examining Myanmar education because national figures may mask regional differences that are crucial to the planning process. Salient EconomicÂ, Myanmar Education Research Bureau. However, Myanmar became a unified nation during the reign of King Anawrahta (1044-1072 A.D) when the first Myanmar Empire was established and the Bagan dynasty began. The Higher Education Seminars also dealt with the need for enhancement of  the quality of the distance education system. Discrimination against ethnic minorities also remains a problem for the education system. Myanmar’s education reform began in 2011 when the country’s government system changed from a military government to a democracy. (1994). It has a coastline of 2,300 kilometres. 11. EHR Sector Analysis experiences in Myanmar and Viet Nam are presented hereÂ, because in both countries the studies were initiated at approximately the sameÂ, time. He comes from Myanmar. These seminars led to the introduction of ICT in the education sector and of providing the necessary facilities and infrastructure to sustain the use of ICT in education.Â, The structure for school education is 5-4-2 with five years of primary school education, four years of middle school education and two years of high school education. As early as 1813, eleven years before the first Anglo-Myanmar War a charter was granted allowing mission schools  to operate freely in the country. The UN is working with the country’s authorities to ensure that the education system is made more resilient, and children’s schooling is protected as much as possible. Also financial constraints often discourage many poor parents from sending some or all of their children to school.  ‘Myanmar Education: status, issues and challenges’,  Journal ofÂ, Southeast Asian Education.     4. This is in keeping with the  policy of providing equitable education throughout the Union. Education in the early days  Education, since the early days, has  been highly regarded in Myanmar.  National Report on UN’s WorldÂ, Summit for Social Development, Copenhagen. It is only in recent years that law and order, as well as peace and tranquillity have been restored to most of the areas which had been under dissenting groups. Ministry of Education. Because of this role in the community they are often regarded as key players in any social mobilisation effort, be it at the community level or national level. In 1872, the first high school (upper secondary) was established, by the missionaries.  Hong Kong: The Hong Kong Institute if Education.Â, Kwong, J.Y.S. Â, 28. The Postgraduate Diploma in Teaching (PGDT) Programme and the PostgraduateÂ, Diploma in Multimedia Arts (PGDMA) Programme were initiated in AY 1999-2000 andÂ, are conducted by the two Institutes of Education. This is part one of a five-part post by Monash University students from a two-week study tour to Myanmar.. Editor’s Note: In July this year, nineteen Criminology students from Monash University travelled to Myanmar on a two-week study tour, sponsored by the New Colombo Plan Mobility … Yangon:Â, Department of Higher Education (Lower Myanmar).Â, Ministry of Education. MOE/UNDP/UNESCO (MYA/90/004 Project).    2, 1. Education System in Myanmar Brief Description of Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Education 1 Basic Education System 1.1 The current basic education system in Myanmar comprises six years of primary (Grade 1 to Grade 6), three years of lower secondary (Grade 7 to Grade 9) and two years of upper secondary (Grade 10 and Grade 11) education. It was in the same year that the first English middle school (lower secondary) was founded. At its widest it measures 936 kilometres, and 2,051 kilometres at its longest. Key challenges in Myanmar include limitations in the quality of education services at all levels of education and the number of qualified teachers, as well as weak school infrastructure and outdated teaching methods. Yangon: Central Statistical Organization.Â, Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development. Now, the new government of Myanmar has also made education reform a national priority. (2002). (1998). The second Myanmar Empire was established by King Bayintnaung in 1551. (1996). In AY 1987-88, there were only 38,050 students but by AY 2001-2002, the number has increased to 560,781 students. The U.S. has increased aid to Burma to help create change; according to ForeignAssistance.gov, U.S. aid spending to Burma increased to $75.4 million in 2015 compared to $38.6 million in 2011. The Burmese government and ethnic and sectarian rebels often engage in conflict. It completely emphasizes upon rote learning and memorization and regurgitation inhibiting students' creative thinking and critical thinking skills. Yangon:Â, Tin, H. (2000). Soe Zeya Tun / Reuters. Education in Burma is not only inaccessible to many people but also heightens existing ethnic tensions. The Universities of Distance Education in Yangon and in Mandalay have over the years proved to be extremely popular. Yangon: Government PrintingÂ, Government of the Union of Myanmar. With an enlarged budget, a new national education law and the removal of public school fees, major reform of the entire education sector is well under way. Education in Myanmar is the main theme of the seminar that was held at the Australian National University, Centre for UNESCO building at 5 Liversidge Street on Wednesday, 31 March 2004 at 4:30 p.m.Â, 2. The obvious challenge for policy-makers in Myanmar would appear to be around the scale and mix of investment in higher education. It tries to:Â, ! 29. (1999). The stakeholders in the education process            Â,  The major stakeholders in the education  of any country are the teachers, the parents and the students. A one-year distance education throughÂ, correspondence course is conducted for primary and lower secondary teachers withoutÂ, 32. EdStats (Education Statistics) provides data and analysis on a wide range of education topics such as access, quality, learning outcomes, teachers, education expenditures, and education equality. Regardless of whether the Rohingya remain in Bangladesh or return to Myanmar, education of the youngest is both a right and an essential investment in the future. The predominant religion in Myanmar is Theravada Buddhism, with about 90% of the population being Buddhists. Journal of Southeast Asian Education, v1 n1 p134-62 Jul 2000. In developing countries like Myanmar, environmental education is being linked to the elimination of hunger, poverty, illiteracy, and repression as well as the enhancement of equality and harmony among nations. This school was the Baptist High school. 12. Abstract: With the importance of education, globally, nationally, and provincially, rural teacher education is emerging an important field of study to promote a nation’s education development.This paper mainly thus focuses on the real situations of the challenges of qualified teacher education encountering in rural areas in Myanmar. Describes the findings of a national education sector study, and stresses the importance of regional networks and educational partnerships. Of these, some 63%, or 28,519 facilities, were primary schools (with 5.18m students) and 14%, or 6224 institutions, were lower … The first Government high school was founded by the British colonial administration in 1874. A man walks out from a destroyed mosque that was burnt down in recent violence at Thapyuchai village, outside of Thandwe, in the Rakhine state, October 3, 2013. Yangon: Myanmar National Commission forÂ, Tin, H. (1998). Education System.  Myanmar regained independence from the British on January 4, 1948 but was left with a legacy of deep racial divisions as a result of the “divide and rule” policy of the British colonial administration.  Developments in Teacher Education in Asia and the Pacific:Â, Issues and Prospects towards the Twenty-first Century. However, while much progress has been made over the past 10 years, indicators still point to serious education and human-resource shortfalls at all levels throughout the region, a reality that could dampen Asia’s lofty economic aspirations. There are now 151 tertiary education institutions – universities, institutes, degree colleges and colleges. With an increasing need for human capital, the government of Myanmar has made the overhauling of the education system a national priority. Agriculture, which accounts for over 50% of Gross Domestic Product, is still the man sector of the economy. However, Myanmar is a country which is rich in natural resources. In 1835, the Macaulay Report was introduced as a blueprint for education to be used in the colonised regions. The Ayeyarwady is the longest river in Myanmar. This system is still in force with substantial modifications. In 1964, this unitary system ceased to exist.  The Octennial Report on Education in BurmaÂ, (1947-55). He has participated in many regional meetings of UNESCO and also attended a number of General Conferences in Paris. Third, theological education in Myanmar should take seriously into account the significance of ‘dialogue’ with peoples of different faith traditions, especially the Buddhist faith. Additional student protests in 1996 and 1998 caused all universities to be closed for another three years. For these courses to continue to grow quality must be assured and the course conductors must be aware of the dynamics of a future-oriented society and all its manifestations. 24. Children are gradually being weaned away from “rote learning” in its most extreme form towards “creative learning” and “critical thinking.” They are being encouraged to read more widely and go beyond the rigid confines of a national school curriculum that is being gradually reformed.Â, 19. maintain cultural traditions and local customsÂ, ! 23. Education and Human Resources (EHR) Sector Aanalysis,        Education and Human Resources (EHR) sector analysis was widely used in theÂ, late 1980s by donor agencies such as World Bank and USAID. In a society which regards teachers as  one of the “five gems”, the Myanmar teacher is regarded to be on the same plane of reverence as the Buddha, the scriptures, the monks and parents. The roles played by the stakeholders in education were highlighted – for the success or failure of the whole education process depends on the interaction and the changing roles they (the stakeholders) play or are assigned to by the society in which they live. The students who can afford it have limited access to current textbooks, making education less effective. Singapore:Â, Maclean, R. (1999). viewing education and human resources development as a system Â, 42. (1998). Evolution of Educational Excellence: 25 YearsÂ, of Education in the Republic of Singapore  (Updated Version). Education. The Data Broadcasting System has been utilized for distance education since July 2001. The “scorched earth” strategy employed by the pposing forces caused grievous damage both to the land and its people. After regaining Independence, the University was reopened and the two colleges were abolished and a unitary system was adopted. It is bordered by Bangladesh, China, India, Laos and Thailand. Yangon: Department of Population.Â, Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development. These six countries have, since 1992, entered into a programme of subregional economic cooperation with the assistance of the Asian Development Bank.Â, 4. retain traditional values but with a willingness  to change and adapt toÂ, changing demands of a modern dynamic societyÂ, ! Higher education in Myanmar has experienced a large expansion since 1988, although ranks as one of the lowest globally for universities. This is further highlighted by the disparity between the number of primary schools (35,159) and the number of middle schools (3,102). (2003). Often these parents keep their children gainfully employed to supplement the family income or keep them at home to look after their younger siblings while both parents are away at work. They are traditionally regarded as community leaders in rural as well as urban communities; but more so in rural ones. Historically, Burma, officially called Myanmar, has not supported and has even been hostile to education. The functions of the departments under Basic Education are coordinated by the Basic Education Council, the Basic Education Curriculum, Syllabus and Textbook Committee, and the Teacher Education Supervisory Committee.Â. Myanmar secondary education has numerous problems. The University of Yangon and the University of Mandalay became arts and science universities and most of their faculties became professional institutes. The EHR sector analysis process is composed of three stages:Â, ! But for most of the population, they are guided by Lord Buddha whose teachings emphasize love, compassion, non-violence and tolerance.Â, 16. Yangon: Myanmar Education Research Bureau.Â, Ministry of Education. Education, and especially higher education, is often criticised in the press in Myanmar and there is no doubt that it encounters problems. The trainingÂ, is conducted during weekends, and October and December school holidays.Â, 33. It was affiliated to the University of Calcutta. Statistical ReportÂ, – 1995. There are also other ethnic groupings - as many as one hundred and thirty-five groups have been identified. Social development, especially education is now reaching many of these areas which hitherto had remained unreached.Â, 9. These seminars enabled academics and educators to assess the current situation, to identify issues, to work out solutions and to formulate programmes for strengthening the education sector. The Second World War also wreaked destruction as Myanmar became a major battlefield. Local community schools run by minority teachers are often shut down because the state wants to enforce its curriculum and promote national unity. Myanmar is a Union of fourteen administrative areas - seven states and seven divisions. A long-standing issue is the difference in the number of students enrolled at primary schools (4,929,635) and the  number enrolled at middle schools (1,921,676). In most of the rural areas and to a smaller extent in urban areas animism still co-exists with Buddhism. This is attested by the popularity and the huge success of the courses offered by the Centres for Human Resource Development at the various universities, institutes, degree  colleges and colleges. By means of a power point presentation, a brief survey was made of the development of education in Myanmar from pre-colonial days to the present.Â, In terms of land area, Myanmar with 676,533 square kilometres is the largest country in mainland Southeast Asia. Education Expenditures. From Asia, Thailand’s Thepsatri Rajabhat University and several South Korean universities have offered partnerships. At the post-school level, the expectations of the students are more varied, and yet at the same time they are more focussed. This thrust consists ofÂ, • providing computer access in schools and higher education institutionsÂ, • setting up a network of e-learning centers, e-resource centers, and computerÂ, • establishing an electronic data broadcasting system for the education networkÂ, • introducing wireless link video conferencingÂ, • creating a fibre optic network system for linkage among departments andÂ,  Teacher training in basic education sub-sector is provided using a two-pronged approachÂ, - in-service teacher training programmes and pre-service teacher training programmes.Â, Pre-service as well as in-service teacher training programmes are provided by 2 InstitutesÂ, of Education and 20 Colleges of Education. The monastery served as the centre of education and culture where all children could learn the 3 R’s. Education in Myanmar is the main theme of the seminar that was held at the Australian National University, Centre for UNESCO building at 5 Liversidge Street on Wednesday, 31 March 2004 at 4:30 p.m. 2. However, the educational system was adversely affected by the coup d’états in 1962 and 1988, with academic spaces being targeted by the military to curb student protests and uprisings. By Susan Hayward and Matthew J. Walton July 29, 2016. He was Rector of the Institute of Education, Yangon from August 1992 till November 2001 when he retired. While education is difficult for the general population to obtain, minority groups in Burma have even fewer educational opportunities. The high cost of education is borne by the different ministries. The functions of the departments under Higher Education are coordinated by the Universities Central Council and the Council of Universities Academic Bodies. Although primary education in Burma is meant to be free, the supplementary costs can add up to $100 annually, which is more than what many Burmese families earn. Education and Literacy. Management in Australia, Prentice Hall).Â,   40. This spirit of sharing and community participation in the education sector has been characterised by the revitalized Parent Teacher Associations and the newly established School Boards of Trustees. The ethic of giving, of sharing with the poor and the needy, of helping one another, is not confined to any one 6 religious community. (1997). But, more needs to be done and Myanmar cannot afford to drag and delay the implementation of comprehensive reforms in the education sector. Now, the new government of Myanmar has also made education reform a national priority. Equality Myanmar also produces a wide range of human rights education resources in Burmese and other languages of Burma. Equality Myanmar designs and implements educational initiatives that encourage the people of Burma to identify, analyze, and solve human rights problems. Papers presented at the International Business Centre, Yangon.Â. The population of Myanmar has been estimated at over 50 million with only 26.6% of its population living in urban areas.  Myanmar Education Updates. Singapore:Â, Tin, H. (1994). UNESCO’s Policy and Sector Analysis  Division has now assisted more thanÂ, twelve countries in Asia, Africa and  Latin America to conduct EHR sectorÂ, 43. Education System in Myanmar Brief Description of Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Education 1 Basic Education System 1.1 The current basic education system in Myanmar comprises six years of primary (Grade 1 to Grade 6), three years of lower secondary (Grade 7 to Grade 9) and two years of upper secondary (Grade 10 and Grade 11) education.  Learning: The Treasure Within. Such a scenario is true of much of the poorer communities in a rural setting. Yangon: Central Statistical Organization.Â, Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development. Both programmes accept pre-service asÂ, 34. Before that he was Pro-rector and Professor of English at the University of Yangon. Only if Burma’s leaders accept reforms and desire to protect human rights can the situation improve. strategy development and feasibility assessment; andÂ, 41. (1999). ‘Enhancing the Status of Teachers in the Asia-Pacific Region: AnÂ, Exploration of the Issues.’  Asia- Pacific Journal of Teacher Education andÂ, Development, I, 1. (1992). Education specialists agree that the curriculum is badly in need of reform and would also benefit from the introduction of modern teaching methods and technology.  There are altogether 455 e-Education Learning Centres throughout the country.  Plans have also been drawn up to collaborate with private enterprises to establish (audio-visual) studios at Yangon and Mandalay Universities of Distance Education.Â. With a young population and a significant skills gap, demand will almost certainly outstrip supply and there will inevitably be a temptation to focus on the more vocationally relevant subjects – not least because of the perception of a quick payback. Education is at the center of building human capital. EDUCATION IN MYANMAR 1. BORGEN Magazine is produced by The Borgen Project, an influential humanitarian organization working to make global poverty a focus of U.S. foreign policy. For individuals, education raises self-esteem and furthers opportunities for employment and earnings. Life in Myanmar is still characterised by a strong sense of community and an essence of the extended family is still retained in the urban areas. This was followed by the establishment of the third Myanmar Empire in 1752 by King Alaungpaya.Â, 7. Report of the Mission to Burma. Professor Han Tin was also on the Steering Committee of the Education Sector Study for Myanmar which was undertaken by UNESCO/ UNDP and the Ministry of Education in 1990-93. According to a 2007 Myanmar Times special issue on education, the government established a 30-year education development plan in 2001–02 in order to develop a ‘learned society’ for the knowledge age, with the expansion of schools as a priority.  Paper submitted to UNESCO-PROAP. Education was largely religious and ethical rather than secular and economic - life and education were very closely related in those days.  II, 1.  7. Progress and Completion in Education. There are In modern Myanmar, there is a diffusion of races across all seven states and seven divisions. 3, 6. Culture.  ‘Cooperation and Community Empowerment in Myanmar in theÂ, context of Myanmar Agenda 21’, Asian Pacific Economic Literature, 17(1).Â, The Australian National University, Canberra: Blackwell.Â, Kaung, U (1963). The 10 departments are distributed between two Deputy Ministers. They are spread among the seven divisions. There are eleven years of education.  Educational Statistics, 1996-97.Â, (Serial No. Editor’s Note: In July this year, nineteen Criminology students from Monash University travelled to Myanmar on a two-week study tour, sponsored by the New Colombo Plan… Such parents do not realise the value of education. (1997). In addition a very short part of the Mekong River marks a small section of the border between Myanmar and Thailand, and also between Myanmar and Laos. These School Boards of Trustees have proved to be extremely effective and the parents have become more active stakeholders in the education process.Â, The largest group of stakeholders in  education are the students. There are Hong Kong: The Hong Kong Institute of Education. Myanmar was no exception. FebruaryÂ, 1999. Participation in Education. Life revolved round the village and the values of “extended families” were strong. Recent violence in the western Rakhine state displaced over 140,000 people, many of whom were minority Rohingya Muslims. UNESCO conceptual hierarchy for the EHR sector analysis is related loosely toÂ, the classic strategic planning approach:Â,                diagnosis> policy> strategy> programme> projects Â,   (Stoner, Collins and Yetton, 1989. Some private school teachers said they would like to see some of the subjects taught in Myanmar schools … ‘EFA Activities in Myanmar’. UNICEF’s strategy In 2021, UNICEF will continue to meet the needs of internally displaced and conflict-affected populations in Myanmar and mitigate the impacts of conflict and inequity. According to Ministry of Education (MoE) figures, in the 2015/16 school year Myanmar had 45,387 schools catering to 8.85m children. Other than working to shut schools down and to regulate what is taught in them, Burma has not spent much on its educational systems.  I, 1. Claire Allen considers an education curriculum based on critical thinking. Education System .  Much emphasis and priority is given to the training of teachers for the quality of a nation'sÂ, education depends on the quality of its teachers. In line with the same policy, there are two Departments of Higher Education, one for Lower Myanmar and one for Upper Myanmar.Â, 22. In its place were set up numerous professional institutes, arts and 5 science universities, degree colleges  and colleges. Sources: Oxford Burma Alliance, The World Bank, The World Bank, ForeignAssistance.gov, The Wall Street Journal Photo: Nippon Foundation. Education is regarded as a priority sector for it is essential for human resources development and is viewed as a key for national development. Yangon:Â, James, H. (2003). Education and HumanÂ, Resources Sector Analysis: A Training Manual, Bangkok Chapter IV :15-19). & Sim, W.K. Yangon: Myanmar EducationalÂ, Tin, H. et al. The largest ethnic group is the Bamar. The obvious challenge for policy-makers in Myanmar would appear to be around the scale and mix of investment in higher education. Students at a mathematics tuition class in Yangon. Participation in Education . ‘The Development of University Education in Burma.’ Journal ofÂ, the Burma Research Society. Due to the fighting, Burma prevented aid agencies from working with refugees, denying them access to healthcare and education. It dealt with the country setting, a brief historical background and a description of the way in which the system of education had evolved. Myanmar is also extremely vulnerable to natural hazards, including cyclones, floods and earthquakes, which could have a devastating impact on vulnerable communities. The Rohingya crisis is also an education crisis, as tens of thousands of refugees remain unable to access schooling in their temporary homes. Combatting COVID-19 Challenges for Women and Children in Africa, The BINP: Fighting Poverty in Uganda by Saving Gorillas, Women for Africa Foundation: Empowering Young Female Leaders, How the Coffee Industry is Addressing Global Poverty, The Borgen Project Celebrates the Reintroduction of the Global Health Security Act, The Borgen Project Applauds Passage of the Malala Scholarship Act, The COVID-19 Crisis in FCV-Affected Countries, COVID-19 Travel Bans Impact Least Developed Countries. 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